Monday, September 30, 2019
Due to the fast-paced growth of Sony Corporation in the international market, it gave way for the misalignment of its market and internal expansion leading to the deterioration of its rate of technological development or the quality of its product lines, and the decline of the efficiency of its workforce as the number of responsibilities and tasks suddenly increased triggered by the market expansion of the said company. With the aid of ICT Supplier Self-Assessment Questionnaire and balance scorecard, Sony Corporation has been able to improve the quality of its product and workforce efficiency. By expanding the workforce of Sony, it can solve the deterioration of its rate of technological advancement and inefficiency on workforce on a long term basis. Between adding new position to the organization structure of Sony and hiring more workers to expand the workforce of the said company, adding new position to Sony Corporation is the one that fits to solve the above mentioned problems of Sony considering the cost of its implementation and effectiveness. Introduction With the growing competition in the international market, it is a must for Sony Corporation to secure competitive advantage in terms of internal stability and technological development. Most consumers nowadays provides more premium on the most advanced products in the market, and this is the primary reason why Sony Corporation allot significant amount of resources to research and development to maintain the pace of their technological development. Furthermore, Sony has designed its organization structure in such a way that it could easily respond to various new market challenges. But the forces of market competition and globalization blocks the technological advantages of Sony as well as destabilized the internal stability through attacking their organization design as various departments and key person of the said company shoulders broader responsibilities as the company continues to expand in the international market. SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors, Panasonic, Toshiba, Apple, Microsoft, and Dell are just few of the many electronics companies also operating in the international market with fast-paced technological development (Isuppli. om 2006: 1). Due to this scenario, SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s products appears to be less technologically advanced compared to its competitors leading to a sudden down turn on their sales and profit internationally as their customers shift to their competitors (Eetimes. com 2008: 1). Furthermore, during the peak of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s international operation, various departments and top level managers was bombarded with more tasks and responsibilities in order to support their market expansion which presently lead to the deterioration of their performances. Distribution of task and responsibilities is weak and most of the organization design of Sony is already obsolete considering the present condition of competition and globalization in the international market. In this regard, this paper aims to discuss how the forces of competition and globalization weaken the organization design and technological advantage of Sony as well as the potential alternatives that Sony must undertake in order to solve the said weaknesses. At the end of this paper, expect for a recommendation that would best solve the problems of Sony concerning its organization design and technology. Classification of Organization Structure Sony Corporation has been using divisional type of organizational design as illustrated by their organizational chart, see appendix (. During the early years of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation in the market, the divisional type of organization design enables them to easily implement strategies and decisions to problems that need immediate solution. Since Sony was only on its development stage, they were able to fully utilize the optimal gains that can be derived from using divisional organization structure. The fast relay of information, decision making and implementation of strategies through the use of divisional organization design provided Sony with tremendous amount of gains in the international market as they start successfully penetrating their target market and out-performed their competitors in the market, making them one of the successful multinational companies around the globe (Goliath. ecnext. com 2007: 1). Furthermore, the divisional organization design enables Sony to specialize its Ã¢â¬Å"groupsÃ¢â¬ since thereby improving the quality of their products in the market (Market Wire 2005: 1). Like for instance, the Sony Ericson Mobile Communications Group concentrate only to develop and produce mobile communication products in the market. The head of Ericson Mobile Communications Group is directly below the CEO of Sony, and so with their other groups (Sony. net 2008: 1). The direct relationship between the head of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s groups and its CEO provides ease on decision making and distribution of information as well as strategies on brand development. But this organizational structure starts to provide instabilities to Sony Corporation as it continues to grow as electronics industry superpower in the international market. As the company grew in the international market, responsibilities of each head of various groups also increased up to the point wherein they start performing inefficiently as their time being spent on every vital aspect of their operation become lesser and lesser. In this regard, the present status of divisional organization design to Sony becomes ineffective and only provides instabilities as the executives of the company starts to perform inefficiently on their respective fields. But divisional organization design fits Sony than any other organization structure available in the business management realm. Since Sony have a diversity of products in the market, and each group specializes into the production of their own product lines, then, divisional structure already fits Sony. The only problem lies on the fact that every executive of Sony starts gaining more responsibilities in his/her assigned group. In other words, the international expansion of Sony in the recent years was not accompanied by expansion of internal responsibilities of various executives of the said company, thereby leading to a down turn on their overall performance. In order for Sony to restore the stability of its internal affairs, it does not have to change its organization design; rather, Sony management can make improvements on their divisional structure by adding new positions or by appointing executive assistants to key positions on various groups of the said company. This strategy will provide enough room for the key personnel of Sony to manage their responsibilities well and delegate those less priority tasks to their assistance or new positions in the group. In other words, this strategy will give way for the internal expansion of Sony while maintaining their original organization design that was already proven to be effective and fit to the business structure of Sony Corporation. Choosing organization structure other than divisional design would provide great risk since Sony operates on various groups with different product lines to produce into the market. Furthermore, each group has less influence on one another and almost operates independently from other group while their headquarters and CEO serves as the link between them. In this regard, it is vital for Sony Corporation to implement the said internal expansion of their groups in order for them to re-establish their competitive advantage in the international market in terms of internal stability and workforce efficiency especially during these times wherein the forces of tight market competition and globalization calls for the acquisition of more potential sources of competitive advantages to keep the pace of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth internationally. Key Determinant and Influences on Organizational Structure One of the main strategies of Sony in expanding its share on the international market would be the diversification of its product line from electronics to B2B business solutions, which later on enables the company to tap various resources. Since each product line of Sony needs different production processes compared to others, Sony decided to use divisional organizational structure in order to easily manage the entire company without compromising the quality of their product lines. For instance, Sony Financial Holdings Group provides business solution services to the market and needs different operational processes compared to Sony Entertainment Business Group that provides television, digital cameras, and video cameras in the market. Each of these groups requires different set of operational style, set of skills and equipments, and set of strategies, thereby providing enough room to these groups to operate independently from one another would enhance their productivity and efficiency as they specialize into their production process. This is the main reason why Sony chose to use divisional organization design in order to provide enough room for each product line to be developed separately by workers specialized on producing it from other product line. In this regard, the strategy of Sony to diversify its product line gave way for the use of divisional organization structure. Furthermore, another factor that serves to be the key determinant of Sony CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s organization structure would be its growth rate. Sony Corporation has roughly 4 percent sales growth rate internationally as of this month which is relatively higher compared to its rival companies like Panasonic with -2. 78 percent sales growth rate (Reuters. com 2008: 1). During the initial stage of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in the international market, as their product become more diverse leading to a fast-paced growth, Sony chose to use divisional organization structure to allow the company to cope up with the said growth rate since divisional organization structure provides enough room for Sony to further develop their diverse product line through specialization. At present, the root of organization stability of Sony roots on the fact that they were not able to accompanied their market growth and expansion with internal expansion causing for the divisional organization structure to work inefficiently. Once the internal growth rate of Sony already aligned itself to its market growth, then, that is the only time wherein Sony can fully utilize the potential gains of using divisional organization structure. In this regard, it is therefore vital for Sony to keep track its market growth and internal growth if whether these two still align each other since these affects the performance of their organization structure. The strategy and growth of Sony is interrelated to one another and this is the main reason why these two factors greatly affect its organization structure. The strategy of Sony to diversify its product line provided them with enough opportunity to increase their market share in the international market. The said product line expansion and increase of market share enable Sony to easily penetrate its target market and outperformed its competitors. Furthermore, as Sony continues to successfully penetrate its target market and outperformed its competitors, it starts to gain impressive growth in the market due to higher sales and profit. But the said market growth of Sony was not accompanied by internal expansion which presently leads to tremendous losses as key personnel of its groups starts performing inefficiently and ineffectiveness of their organization structure. Furthermore, as these key personnel of Sony perform inefficiently, the research and development of their products starts to drop, giving enough room for its competitors to step up in the electronics and business solutions industry and provide financial losses to the company (Forbes. com 2008: 1). Therefore, at this point in time, it is vital for Sony to address these instabilities on its workforce in order to restore their competitiveness in the international market with respect to their market strategies and technological advancement. Organizational Effectiveness One way in which Sony Corporation evaluates performance would be through the use of Information and Communications Technology Supplier Self-Assessment Questionnaire which aims to determine if whether their suppliers uphold the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct. Since suppliers have a direct impact on the overall performance of Sony in terms of product quality, along with other electronics companies around the globe such as HP, IBM, and Microsoft, Sony Corporation created the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct which encompasses the ICT Supplier Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Through the ICT Supplier Self-Assessment Questionnaire, Sony can monitor the product quality of their suppliers. By securing the performance of their suppliers, Sony Corporation has been able to maintain its integrity of producing high quality products in the market. There were cases wherein Sony Corporation was sued for releasing substandard products in the market. Like what happened recently when a couple sued Sony when the battery of a Sony laptop exploded causing injuries to the complainants. Due to this, Sony had to pull out all of the batteries that were being suspected as substandard and replaced with a new one in order to prevent having more accidents. In this regard, through the ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire, Sony Corporation can stop the above mentioned accident caused to substandard products that they release in the market which mostly came from their suppliers. Dell, the maker of the said substandard battery of Sony laptop, is now making collaboration with Sony in pulling out those substandard laptop batteries in the market. Another way by which Sony evaluates their performance is through the use of balance scorecard. Balance score card help every organization in the market to determine if whether their smaller scale operational activities are still aligned with their larger scale activities. As for the case of Sony Corporation, it uses balance scorecard in determining the alignment operational processes of its groups, e. g. Sony Ericson Mobile Communications, Game Business Group, Entertainment Business Group, and Sony Financial Holdings Group, to the vision and strategy of the entire organization. For instance, the balance scorecard is being used by Sony Corporation in determining if whether the processes used in producing Sony Ericsson in the market are still aligned with the Corporate Social Responsibility of the entire company. Through this, Sony Corporation can keep their various groups intact to the vision and strategies of their Ã¢â¬Å"parentÃ¢â¬ company Ã¢â¬â Sony Corporation. Just recently, Sony Ericsson phone was awarded as the most Ã¢â¬Å"Eco-FriendlyÃ¢â¬ phone in the market and the said award is being attributed to the continues success of Sony Corporation to uphold its Corporate Social Responsibility on minimizing the wastes being emitted in producing the said product (Sayer 2008: 1). Considering the said success of Sony Ericsson phone in the market, there is a great possibility that it can earn positive balance scorecard by upholding the CSR of Sony Corporation, which can eventually serve as the basis for further development of Sony Ericsson phone in the market (Ericsson. co. jp 2005: 9). Therefore, balance scorecard provides enough room for Sony Corporation to determine the alignment of their product lines to their vision and strategy especially when it concerns the integrity of their brand name. At this point, the performance evaluation tools of Sony Corporation, ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire and Balance Scorecard, has been able to solve its problem regarding maintaining the quality of their products in the market by securing the compliance of their suppliers and aligning the production processes of their product lines into their Corporate Social Responsibilities. Therefore, ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire and Balance Scorecard fit to the vision and strategies of Sony Corporation based from their successful solution regarding the low quality level of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s products in the market. This issue on quality level and on how the above identified evaluation tools of Sony Corporation solved it will be thoroughly discussed in the next part of the paper. Critical Analysis of Current Problems Actually, the main problem of Sony Corporation would be the misalignment of its market and internal expansion that eventually lead to various Ã¢â¬Å"branch-problemsÃ¢â¬ like low performance rate from the workforce of the company as well as the deterioration of the quality level of their product lines in the market. The fast-paced growth of Sony in the past years, while leaving their internal condition to remain untouched, provided inefficiencies on the part of their workforce as the responsibility of one another can no longer be performed as efficient as before, and low product quality as the said inefficiencies on their workforce started to reflect on the quality level of their product lines. This is the main reason why Sony Corporation suffers from return on investment and profit on its operation as their customers shift to the side of their competitors since the latter already have relatively technologically advanced product lines in the market compared to Sony Corporation. In order to provide a long term solution to this problem of Sony Corporation, it is a must for the management of the said company to expand their workforce either by adding new positions to reinforce the key positions in the company or hire more workers to delegate the tasks optimally among their workforce. But at present, Sony Corporation is applying short term solutions to these problems through the use of evaluation tools as discussed on the previous part of this paper. First, the ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire provided solution on securing the quality of their supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s products which later on be used on the production process of Sony. With the ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire, Sony can monitor if whether the supplies of their suppliers are substandard or complies with the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct which sets up the standards for electronic products in the market (Greenwald 2005: 2). Sony Corporation can now minimize the incidence of product malfunction or substandard components of their product lines just like what happened to the batteries of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s laptop that exploded due to overheating. ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire will improve the quality of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s product line even up to a small degree since it only solves their problem on the side of their supplier and not the root of the problem which still lies on the internal stability of their workforce. With the rise of ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire and Electronic Industry Code of Conduct, cases of substandard electronic products in the market will be minimized leading for Sony to improve the quality level of its products (United Nations Environment Program 2005: 1). In this regard, through the use of ICT Supplier Self Assessment Questionnaire, Sony Corporation manages to improve the quality of their product lines even up to a small degree. On the other hand, the balance scorecard of Sony Corporation provides enough room for the said company to improve the quality of their workforceÃ¢â¬â¢s performance since the company can determine if whether a group or department already performs outside the boundaries of their vision and corporate strategies. There are times wherein the misalignment of Sony CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s products to their vision and corporate strategies roots on the inefficient performance of workforce of a given department or group, and balance scorecard can determine if whether a given group of Sony Corporation performs inefficiently based from the evaluation of the products being produced by that given group. Through this, Sony Corporation can easily determine which group among its companies needs to undergo workforce expansion to solve the said inefficiency of their workers. In this regard, the balance scorecard provides two services to Sony Corporation, evaluation of their productÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the market and its alignment to the vision and corporate strategies of the company, and on which group of the company needs workforce expansion in order to improve the quality of their product lines just like what happened to Sony Ericsson phone in the market (Esato. com 2007: 1). Solutions In order for Sony Corporation to have long term solution to their problem regarding the misalignment of their market and internal expansion as the consequence of their fast-paced growth, it is advisable for them to expand their workforce either by adding new positions into their organization structure to optimally delegate the tasks among the workers of the company; or, the management could hire more workers that will handle the additional responsibilities provided by the market expansion of the company. Furthermore, through adding new position to the organization structure to various business groups of Sony Corporation, e. g. executive assistants will give their key executives to delegate some of the less important tasks and responsibilities to their assistants so they can concentrate to more responsibilities. The divisional organization structure of Sony Corporation will still be used in the organization design of Sony under the said strategy considering that it is the only organization design that fits to the business nature of Sony Corporation as discussed on the previous part of this paper. On the other hand, with regards to hiring more workers that will be responsible on shouldering the additional tasks provided by the market expansion of Sony Corporation, this will provide Sony with enough room to improve the efficiency of their workforce as every person on their workforce can now perform their responsibilities to their optimal level since tasks are now well distributed on their workforce. At the end of the day, these strategies will improve the quality of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce and so with the quality of their products. The only problem with hiring of additional workers would be the fact that it is costly to hire more workers for the company considering that Sony is presently suffering from low profitability in the market compared to adding new position to the organization structure of Sony Corporation. Recommendation Both of the above mentioned strategies provides same improvement on lifting the efficiency of Sony CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce and boosting its product quality level, but in terms of costs on the part of the company, adding new positions to the organization structure of Sony is relatively cheaper than hiring more workers. In this regard, alongside with the performance evaluation tools of Sony Corporation, it is a must for their management to add new positions into the divisional organization structure of the company to provide long term solution on their low quality product in terms of technology and improving the efficiency of their workforce considering the extent of their market expansion in the global market. Conclusion With the misalignment of market and internal expansion of Sony Corporation due to its fast-paced growth in the international market, it provided various problems into the said company. Technological advancement of SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s products drops while the efficiency of its workforce decline due to the significant increase on tasks and responsibilities on the workplace caused by the fast-paced growth of Sony in the recent years. Through adding new positions on the organization structure of Sony, it can already improve the efficiency of its workforce and so with the rate of its product lineÃ¢â¬â¢s technological advancement in the market.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Would there be any laws to control how you lived, what right or freedoms you exercised, or what property you had? Why? There would have to be certain moral laws as to how to live on the Island. The majority of laws should still pertain despite the situation. No murder or stealing should definitely still apply. Freedoms and Rights should be very close to the U. S. Government as far as the freedom of speech, and religion. As far as property and the rights to own the property, there should be an agreement as to which property each errors owns and that what was built or created by that person is their property.These would be good laws to control how citizens live in a realistic way which would help arguments and discrimination in these areas. Realistically these laws would be broken though. Despite the fact that the majority of people do want to be civil and have an agreement on how to overcome and avoid issues, without an actual government it would be chaos. Government provides rules an d breaking them results in consequences, with no rules or consequences to actions, It makes it seem okay. It Is Important to establish laws and consequences of breaking them. ) Considering the key terms from this unit, what type or form of government would be best suited for your situation? Why? In this situation of being stranded, a Direct Democracy would be the best government in order for citizens to collectively vote and agree on problems. There still needs to be a government to keep everything together so an anarchy would not be a good idea. An Autocracy would be a bad idea as well because with one person governing there would be no regard to others opinions.With a Direct Democracy everyone has the ability to state their opinion without It being unfair or unreasonable because they all voted. 3) Would anyone have the right to govern you? Would you have the right to govern anyone else? Why? I believe if it was a mutual group decision on the issue then the group as a whole has the right to govern that person. I don't believe one person should be able to govern because that is Just one person's opinion and it is a biased decision.In the direct democracy that I believe the citizens on the stranded island should have, it would be more reasonable to have the group govern. In order to have a working and stable environment governing others is necessary but with fairness. 4) Would you have any rights? What might these rights be? Yes, I would have rights because everyone deserves to have them. Rights such as the right to build a home, rights to hunt and gather food as well as rights to vote for how 5)What might people who were stronger or smarter than others try to do? Why?The stronger or smarter people might try to create a dictatorship in order to have intro over others and to govern them for their own personal reasons. They might also try to effect the idea that everyone is equal and some citizens may be treated poorly and have their rights taken away. Rights suc h as owning property, and voting may be taken away. 6) What might the weaker or less worldly or wise try to do? Why? The weaker and less worldly would most likely give in to the opinions of others. In a direct democracy they might let others influence their votes in order to try to keep the peace.This is a good reason why it should not be a one man Job to govern, because the weaker may have trouble stating their own opinions. 7) What might life be like for everyone? Life for everyone no matter how their government is run would be hard. Not everyone is going to be happy with the decisions that the government will come to and that will always create conflict among the citizens. Learning how to fend on the island while still following the laws and morals would be difficult and in the situation many not obey these rules.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Administrative Procedures OFF2373 Major Assignment A The Workplace and You - Essay Example Employee involvement encompasses the process of making employees work not only with their brains and bodies but also with their hearts. The purpose of constructing the workplace is to establish and maintain appropriate physical working conditions and to improve the quality of work life. Establishing an effective work environment begins with identifying the physical environment and the resources needed to perform the work effectively. Congenial environmental conditions will develop the health and safety of the workers. Similarly, safe work practice leads to better performance, motivation, and higher productivity in the organization. Background noise disrupts the concentration of employees and also affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health by increasing the general stress level. Therefore, to avoid interference with work, the sound level should not be higher than 55 decibels,. The screen size, brightness, contrast and color combination should be adjusted by the operator on behalf of the employees. The best viewing distance from the eye to the computer monitor is 15 to 40 inches. The chair height should be easy to adjust within a range of 15-20 inches above the floor. The space of seat pan should be 16 to 19 inches wide and the seat depth should be 15 to18 inches. The ideal angle between the seat pan and seat back should be 85 to 135 degree adjustable. Providing effective break and rest schedule for workers is important for tapping the best out of the working environment. The break or rest schedule should vary according to the physical and psychological demands of the employees involved in specific assignments. The report is submitted to infrom all people
Friday, September 27, 2019
Assignment 2 - Essay Example It also attempted to address the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was an agreement between the 13 founding States and the established United States of America as a confederation of these States. It also served as the first constitution of the country before it was replaced by the constitution to which this permeable was made part of. It is important to note, however, that the Articles were insufficient to put a strong government in place and failed to provide solid constitutional foundations for the country. It was also because of this reason that it was subsequently replaced with the US Constitution in which this Permeable set out important constitutional direction for the formation and role of government. The Permeable to the Constitution formulated were based upon some ideals and also attempted to remove the shortcomings of the articles. It specifically mentioned some of the ideals and also outlined the intent of the framers of the Const itution. This paper will discuss the various ideals mentioned in the Permeable and will also outline how it attempted to overcome shortcomings of the articles. ... Provide for the common defense 5. Promote the general WelfareÃ 6. Secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our PosterityÃ The permeable referred the name of the country as Ã¢â¬Å"United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬ which is long considered as the essential reference regarding the nature of the government in the country. It also provides a reference to the federal government as an entity which has been created under the constitution and, therefore, overrules the inherent assumption that the States may be independent from each other and can also carryout foreign relations with other States. This idea, therefore, has also given rise to the concept of formation of a more perfect union wherein Federal Government tend to have relatively higher power as compared to the powers adapted by the States according to Federal, as well as individual States constitutions. Still, Constitution allows the individual States to function as sovereign states. Article 1 of the constitution defines the powers of government and how it is actually going to be formulated as a more perfect union. The use of the world to form a more perfect union is also considered as a shift from the Articles of Confederation wherein Nationalists specifically made the case that the Articles failed to provide a mechanism for more cohesive union and governance mechanism (Rakove, 230). The Federal Government was given enough powers to act on the citizens and, therefore, Federal government was given specific mandate to charge taxes directly and also subject the citizens to other issues. This has particularly help overcome constitutional difficulty which articles failed to overcome. It is also important to note that the use of the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"We the PeopleÃ¢â¬ also provides an inherent sense that the Federal government
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Ethics - Essay Example Since infant walkers have hit the market, parents ran out and purchased the product. In 1992 30,000 injuries were related to the product and eventually the product was banned in 1994. Upon being banned makers were aware that the market for the product was out there because of the freedom it allowed infants and the way parents responded according to sales. What this meant for manufactures was that the product still had potential to make a nice amount of profit. Just because a product is banned in the United States does not mean that the product could not be sold in other countries. Most manufactures that see a potential market that will allow for large profit will pursue targeting the market. This happens every day and requires that certain individuals make either ethical or unethical business decisions. The infant walker case has many ethical and unethical business decisions behind exporting the product. An agent assigned to the case could be making ethical business decisions by expo rting the product if the agent was unaware of the ban in the United States. The company however would be making the unethical decisions by purposely hiring someone new or someone unaware of the previous injuries resulting from the product. An agent would be acting unethically if they were aware of the previous injuries and how the product has become banned.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
How did the Normans consolidate control of post-conquest England - Essay Example Following King EdwardÃ¢â¬â¢s death, a council of influential men commonly known as Witan settled on Harold Godwin to take charge of England. This decision did not augur well with several people including William, who was the then King of the Normans and HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Tostig. William particularly took issue with the fact that Edward had promised him the crown of England when he retired, and swore to that in 1063. King HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s, first obstacle was to face his brother Tostig, who had combined forces with the then King of Norway to overthrow HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. TostigÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to rise to power nevertheless, came to an abrupt end in September of that year when the English army won against them (Warren 1987, pg. 18). Buoyed by the victory he had just had over his brother, Harold marshalled his troops to carry on with their match, with their next destination being King WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s sphere of influence, located within the northern region of France. In October of 1066, the two warring parties met near Hastings, and the great battle over the English crown began. At first, Harold GodwinÃ¢â¬â¢s men were destined to beat the Normans. However, their weariness became evident when the situation changed suddenly and Harold was killed in the process . The battle did not stop until such a time when all of HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s loyal bodyguards were all eliminated (Warren 1987, pg. 19). William the then Norman king ascended to the English crown, and with it came the Norman invasion of England. As mentioned in the section above, the Norman conquest of England began in 1066, following the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Duke of Normandy. Moreover, WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s victory during the battle of Hastings heightened his claim for the English crown. Though it came with a mixed bag of reactions, the Norman conquest of the English Kingdom proved vital for the history of England (Roche 1995, pg. 46). This is majorly because the invasion linked England more
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Trinidad and Tobago is a good country to do Internation Business with - Term Paper Example Considering that it is currently on an economic high, Trinidad and Tobago is a good country to do international business with. Trinidad and Tobago has the highest per capita income in terms of direct foreign investments in the region. There are more than 150 firms that have already established businesses in the country. These companies include Coca Cola, Johnson & Johnson, Citicorp, Fujitsu and PricewaterhouseCoopers (International Monetary Fund 4). Currently, the country is enjoying its highest foreign investments opportunities in history. Fueling the high levels of foreign direct investment is the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion of its energy sector. Trinidad and Tobago also offers a warm, diverse and stable business climate, which is contrary to the unpredictability witnessed in other Caribbean countries. The country also boasts a diverse cultural setting that makes it easy for locals and foreign investors to set up and carry out business activities (Rojas-Suarez and Elias 17). The bus iness environment in Trinidad and Tobago makes it an ideal country to do international business with. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic, cultural and political structure sets it apart from its neighbors in the Caribbean since it offers excellent investment opportunities for both big and small international businesses. ... The country is also considered to be the most industrialized in the Caribbean and Latin America region (International Monetary Fund 7). Trinidad and Tobago has not always been an investorÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of business destination. The twin islands of Trinidad and Tobago were Spanish colonies before they fell into British authority during the early 19th century. At the time, much of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was pegged on its sugarcane industry which came to near collapse following the emancipation of slaves in 1834. However, the importation of plantation workers soon revived the sugar industry and enhanced the coca industry. A further boost to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was realized with the discovery of oil reserves in 1910. Trinidad and Tobago gained its independence from the British in 1962 and has been expanding its economic opportunities ever since (Rojas-Suarez and Elias 176). There are two major ethnic groups in Trinidad and Tobago: Indian and African. The Indians make up 4 0% of the total population while Africans are about 37% of the population. People of mixed ethnicity make up about 21 percent of the population. According to July 2011 estimates, the country has a population of about 1,227,500 people. A majority of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens lie in the 15-64 years age bracket. This means that the labor market is quit big in the country. 14% of the total population can be found in the urban areas, with many being in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital, Port of Spain (CIA World Factbook). This is because the majority of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s industries and businesses are based in the urban areas. Many of the people of Trinidad and Tobago are either Christian or Hindu. However there is a sizable number (less than 20 percent) who profess the Muslim
Monday, September 23, 2019
Law - Essay Example In many countries there are restricted areas where patent laws are applicable and these include such areas as methods of businesses and also act of mentality. The patent rights prevent other entities from selling, using, making or distribution of the invention without the patentee permission (Lehman, 1995). Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of the World Trade Organization is applicable to all members of the organization as far as any inventions are considered especially as far as technology is concerned. The protection term has been to be more than twenty years by the organization (Steinberg, 2005). A patent excludes others from making use of your invention for a limited period usually 20 years subject to fees maintenance. In essence it is like any other property right because it can be sold, transferred, or basically abandoned once the exclusive period has expired. The government is the provider of the exclusive rights but only if you agree to provide the invention details to the public after the stipulated period of 20 years or 17 years. The rights of the patent vary according to different nations (Silverthorne, 2004). Since the patent gives the patent holder some exclusive rights and indeed a monopoly it does not however mean that the patent holder can in any way can abuse the patent. For instance, a number of inventions are further developments of prior inventions which mean that the invention may as well be covered by another person patent. If the inventor adds a new feature to existing design and makes new improvements to the design and in the process obtain a patent in accordance to the design improvement then he/she can only build his/her improvements legally with the patent holderÃ¢â¬â¢s permission if only the original patent is still being used. Also the owner of the improved design can rule out the patent holder
Sunday, September 22, 2019
International Trade and Finance Speech - Research Paper Example macro economy. 1. What happens when there is a surplus of imports brought into the U.S.? Cite a specific example of a product with an import surplus, and the impact that has on the U.S. businesses and consumers involved. There are two common things that happened when there are surplus imports in the US economy namely: The domestic producers tend to experience low sales volume and lower incomes (Sherman & Hunt, 2008). This is because imported goods tend to be sold at lower price in the domestic market than locally manufactured goods (Sherman & Hunt, 2008). On the other hand, locals consumers tend to enjoy low prices charges as imported goods are sold at reduced prices relative to locally manufactured products (Sherman & Hunt, 2008). In above connection, when imports are higher than exports then an economy is said to be experiencing unfavorable balance of trade (Lasher, 2010). Examples of products that have a surplus import include: oil product, clothes and electronic items (Sherman & Hunt, 2008). It was reported that the US economy imported several barrels of petroleum oil and gases from countries like; China Iraq, Japan to name just but a few. This has made the prices of oil to escalate causing suffrage to the locals (Sherman & Hunt, 2008). ... For example in 2007, exports were 12% while imports were 16% this led to a decrease in GDP growth rate (Economy Watch, 2010). Therefore, International trade affects domestic markets into two major ways namely; it help to broaden domestic market as more business venture are being established (Economy Watch, 2010).Secondly, it has led to closure of local markets because they sell their products cheaply than domestic markets (Van & Lewer, 2007). University students like me have been adversely affected by international trade in the sense that there has been a lot of cultural and technological exchange with the foreign students. This has led to positive trade balance (Van & Lewer, 2007). 3Ã · How do government choices in regards to tariffs and quotas affect international relations and trade? The application of tariffs and quotas involves placing trade restrictions to the foreign countries on the quantity of imports (Lake & Powell, 1999). Normally, tariffsÃ¢â¬â¢ and quotas are employed by countries in attempt to protect domestic industries, consumers and infant industries (Lake & Powell, 1999). This means that application of quotas and tariffs creates trade barriers between the countries, and therefore, preventing free and fair trade among countries (Lake & Powell, 1999). This may further affect international relationship by creating enemity as trading countries retaliate against each other by placing the same barriers in return (Lake & Powell, 1999). 4Ã · what are foreign exchange rates? How are they determined? Exchange rates refer to the rate at which local currencies are exchanges with foreign countries (Rosenberg, 2003). The rates may determined by the market forces commonly known as; demand and supply market forces. Whereby, when there is
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The ozone Layer and the greenhouse effect Essay Ozone, an allotrope of oxygen is present in the atmosphere in only tiny amounts. It is found almost entirely in the stratosphere. It is vital for our survival as it filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation. However if ozone reaches ground level it is harmful to human health. It weakens the bodys immune system and attacks lung tissue. Ozone is extremely reactive and reacts with other gases very quickly but there are also reactions that are producing ozone and without human intervention this ozone would be in a steady state equilibrium. The natural reactions that involve ozone are: In this reaction hindicates the photon of ultraviolet radiation that is absorbed. Reaction 2 is the one that produces the ozone and reaction 4 is the one that destroys it. The is also another reaction that destroys ozone. 5. O3 + h O + O2 This is the reaction that is responsible for the screening effect of ozone, since it absorbs ultraviolet radiation. Chemists are able to calculate the concentration of ozone that should be in the stratosphere by working out how fast the rate of making and destroying occur, but when they actually measured the concentration it was a great deal less than expected. This tells us that there must be something else that is destroying the ozone other that the natural reactions. There are other radicals in the stratosphere that can react with ozone. An example of these is the chlorine atom and the bromine atom. Chloromethane and bromomethane can get into the stratosphere naturally from the oceans and by burning of coal and vegetation. Most of the chloromethane and bromomethane react in the troposphere but some manage to get onto the stratosphere. Once in the stratosphere the chloromethane splits up due to solar radiation and then the chlorine atom is able to react with ozone. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cycle: 1. Cl + O3 ClO + O2 The ClO is another radical able to react again 2. ClO + O Cl + O2 So now there are two reaction competing to destroy ozone 1. Cl + O3 ClO + O2 2. O + O3 O2 + O2 In the stratosphere there is a much lower concentration of Cl atom compared to O atoms, so it would seem that the reaction with Cl would be insignificant but chemists have measured the rate of reaction of Cl with ozone and have found it to be 1500 faster than the rate of reaction with O atoms. Also because Cl atoms are regenerated in a catalytic cycle they play a large part in removing ozone. In the 1930s scientist Thomas Midgley demonstrated a new refrigerant. He inhaled a lungful of dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) and used it to blow out a candle. He was showing two of the properties of the gas; its lack of toxicity and lack of flammability. CCl2F2 belongs to family known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which contain chlorine, fluorine and carbon. Some other useful things about CFCs is there low boiling points and low reactivity. CFCs seemed to be the perfect answer to many problems. They had many uses such as propellant in aerosols, refrigerants, blowing agents for making expanded plastics and as cleaning solvents. In the troposphere they remain unreactive and there estimated lifetime is about 100 years. This gives them plenty of time to reach the stratosphere where they are no longer unreactive. They are split up by the solar radiation giving out the fluorine and chlorine to react in the stratosphere destroying ozone. In 1984 a group of British scientists discovered a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica due to CFCs. Due to the scientists finding this hole there has been a worldwide ban on using CFCs since 1990. A replacement to CFCs are hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydroflurocarbons (HFCs). The difference with these is that they contain a C-H bond which is quickly broken down in the troposphere before they have time to reach to stratosphere. Unfortunately they are not the perfect solution as they contribute to global warming. The Greenhouse effect occurs in the. Without it the Earth would be uninhabited. By trapping the Suns radiation the atmosphere keeps the temperature high enough to support life. Greenhouse gases are gases that trap the Suns radiation. Burning fossil fuels, therefore releasing CO2 can make more greenhouse gases effectively warming the Earth. The Sun radiates energy mainly in the ultraviolet and visible. The part that is absorbed helps to heat the Earth, and the Earth the radiates energy back into space. Some of the energy radiated is absorbed by the troposphere heat the Earth. This is known as the greenhouse effect. If we release to many greenhouse gases this will in turn heat the Earth more causing sea levels to rise as the ice caps melt. The rise in sea level will leave low-lying coastal place to disappear under-water. Tom Harbud 01/03/2001 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Good And Effective Leadership Manifestation INTRODUCTION Leadership is exhibited in almost all stages of life. Everybody in one stage of his or her life has been faced with situations where leadership skills had to be demonstrated. Right from individual families and homes to organisations, institutions and governmental bodies, leadership skills are very much demonstrated. Irrespective of whether one possesses substantial leadership traits or not, there is an inherent need to succeed in a given task. Good leadership is not based on just leading people but it also comes along with different responsibilities and based on how its handled, justifies one as being either a good leader or a bad leader. Effective leadership skills can never be practiced without followers; they are the people who are led to either a success or failure in a particular project. Attitudes of followers are greatly subjected to leadership traits displayed by the leaders and this is backed by the statement made by Hackman and Johnson (2004) that followers prosper under ef fective leaders and suffers under ineffective leaders. (Hackman Johnson, 2000) 2.0. CASE STUDY 1 2.1. Case Summary Joey was previously involved in aviation and believes that, his narration is in a similar fashion to what course aims to achieve by better equipping us for the life of engineers in our chosen industries. Evidence of this has been during the 10th week of course when we discussed CRM (Crew Resource Management). Even though he was not personally involved in this scenario, he believes its an excellent situation to analyse. His case is a classic example of how leadership/teamwork manifestation by the pilots, cabin crew and air traffic controllers and use of teamwork to execute a safe outcome for all concerned when a US Airbus A320 in flight had issues with both of its engines in January last year. As the routine flight was climbing out of the New York area, one by one a flock of birds flew into the path of the aircraft and stopped both the jet engines on the aircraft. The captain (the leader of the aircraft) calmly analysed the situation and he knew that he only had a short time to take a concrete decision. The initial decision taken by the leader was to go back to the airport they came from to try and land there with no engines at all, upon a conversation with his co-pilot (subordinate) it was decided that this would be a very unlikely outcome for success. A further discussion with his other worker gave the suggestion of the possibility of landing in a sighted river close to their spot. 2.2 Leadership manifestation The leadership skill in this situation was demonstrated considering the amount of pressure that the crews were under when the crisis started. On January 15, 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 took off from New Yorks LaGuardia airport for Charlotte, North Carolina. Shortly after takeoff, the plane went through a flock of geese at 3,000 feet and both engines were knocked out. Captain Chesley Sully Sullenberger later said that he felt an adrenaline rush right to his core. As his heart rate increased, he forced himself to ignore the physical symptoms and face the situation. (Cross, 2009) This situation was well handled by the crew following these 6 steps that they received during training to try and resolve a crisis. Step 1: The best defense is a good offence (Cross, 2009): Establish training exercises for the possible crisis, US airways had done this with the crew and so they would have been well prepared for the crisis. The commanding pilot was also a very knowledgeable person on crisis management and knew how to formulate a backup plan in stressful situations as evidence by this statement from him in a post accident interview; One way of looking at this might be that, for 42 years, Ive been making small regular deposits in this bank of experience: education and training, said US Airways Capt. Chesley Sully Sullenberger. And on January 15, the balance was sufficient so that I could make a very large withdrawal. (Couric K 2009) Step 2: Tell me now (Cross, 2009): Communicate to known company a protocol that is what the cockpit crew did when they had the failure. Even though the emergency happened at a low altitude they still had to rigidly follow companys procedures to try and evaluation the aircraft systems and the situation itself Step 3: Rally the team (Cross, 2009): Communicate with the other team members on both the best and worst possible outcomes for the situation. The US air 1549 flight crew discussed all possible alternatives in the approach they would take to try and solve the problem Step 4: Isolate and contain the problem (Cross, 2009): Once the crew identified their plan of attack, they isolated the problem by using the best known knowledge at the time and went through checklists to try and remedy the situation and start the engines so they might be able to get out of the situation. US Airways also focused on the ABCs Assess what the situation is and/or threats are, Balance available barriers using policies, procedures and flows, checklists, automation, external resources, human factors, and knowledge of aircraft handling, Communicate effectively and understand callouts, and Standard operating procedures. (Sullenberger C, 2009) Step 5: Fix it (Cross, 2009): After the accident, the industry and airlines are trying to remedy the situation of bird strikes for the future and also better crew training for water ditching Step 6: Train all team members (Cross, 2009): Remedial action after the accident and the subsequent findings have suggested better precautions and training to try and prevent an occurrence like this happening again. Comparing of the learnt theories to the case study 1 The theories learnt in this course are very relevant to this accident. High risk industries have been littered with tragedies from poor management systems in the past. A good starter for this is the review of CRM from lecture 10 in our course it states that; CRM is a system to achieve safe and efficient flight operations by optimizing the use of all available resources such as equipments, procedures and people. CRM training focuses on mastering knowledge, skills and attitudes related to communications, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork (Ljubo V. and Sutherland B, 2010). The paragraphs below outline how the CRM was successfully implemented in the accident; 2.3.1 Leadership: The captain of the aircraft displayed great composure and guidance during the crisis, he used his previous training to avoid the situation from becoming worse. A classic example of great leadership manifestation was when the aircraft was on the water, he checked inside the aircraft to see if there were any stranded people left on the aircraft after every one had left before he left the aircraft. He also directed the rescue crews to approach and rescue people on the wings first before the people on the life rafts. The third positive leadership trait displayed by the co-pilot was when he went back into the sinking aircraft and located more life jackets for the passengers who had none. 2.3.2 Interpersonal communication: This can be broken down further for this section to include; Communication errors, barriers, cultural influences, listening, coordination (Ljubo V. and Sutherland B, 2010). The above mentioned traits were performed to a high standard in each area this in my opinion was the reason why the outcome of the flight was so successful. 2.3.3 Decision-making: This area of the accident can be further examined with the following factors; Risk assessment, risk management techniques, loss of judgement, deviations (Ljubo V. and Sutherland B, 2010) The aircraft crew did an excellent job in these areas, for example in the risk of assessment the crew were thinking about what was going to be the least risk, landing in the river or the airport they came from? Which ties into risk management they have made a decision so now they must manage the risk of this decision with the appropriate tools to make the outcome successful. Lessons learnt from the course We have learnt that the crew in what could be described as an almost hopeless situation pulled off a miracle to save the crippled aircraft. Kellys Followership Model in CRM mentioned in the slides makes reference to the Exemplary Followers: Assertive and not afraid to challenge; essential to safe efficient ops (Ljubo V. and Sutherland B, 2010), these are the techniques employed by the crew on the aircraft at all times to ensure a successful outcome to the situation. We have also learnt that a calm head and excellent teamwork are essential to solving any impending crisis. It was an integral part of this scenario. We didnt have time to consult all the written guidance, we didnt have time to complete the appropriate checklist, so Jeff Skiles and I had to work almost intuitively in a very close-knit fashion, without having a chance to verbalize every decision, every part of the situation. By observing each others actions and hearing our transmissions and our reports to others, we were a ble to quickly be on the same page, know what needed to be done and begin to do it. (Sullenberger C, 2009) The captain of the aircraft exhibited the big 5 important factors under the personality traits of leadership. The above qualities exhibited by the leader and complimented by the crews superb CRM was the major factor for the successful outcome. Lets further break these points down into a more detailed analysis of the situation; 2.4.1 Neuroticism (emotional stability): The captain of the flight had no time to channel his energies into anxiety; he said he had to mentally control his emotions so he could use his thoughts to fly the plane instead 2.4.2 Extraversion (sociability): Sullenberger used his teamwork skills to communicate the problem with his co-pilot as to what the best action would be to ensure a safe outcome for the flight 2.4.3 Openness to experience (creative, curious): Sullenbergers past history as a aviation accident consultant, a glider pilot and a instructor in human dynamics in aviation all helped him to make the right decision needed for a safe outcome. 2.3.4 Agreeableness (trusting nurturing): This was demonstrated by the fact he let his co-pilot run through the engine relight checklist so he could try and attempt to restore engine power, so in the worst case he would be able to fly the aircraft back to the airport on one engine if they got it restarted. 2.3.5 Conscientiousness (organised dependable): He demonstrated this due to his past employment as a instructor pilot in US airways, which consisted of duties such as testing pilots skills in the simulator and in the aircraft. He was also widely recognised by his peers as an excellent pilot and faithful servant of the aviation industry. Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile. (Ljubo V. and Sutherland, 2010) The successful outcome was achieved by the actions of many. Lives were saved due to the experience of a well trained crew (Sullenberger C, 2009). The above two quotes sum up perfectly the Captain and crew of US air flight 1549 in a nutshell. Improvements to Case Study 1 based on learnt theories In light of the accident on the Hudson River, the industry has learnt that they must keep up to date with aircrew training and cabin crew training and the training must be based on one of the most impressive training improvements, Recommendations for new engine certification procedures, emergency checklists, aircraft equipage and pilot training (Croft J 2010). From a leadership point of view the US Government regulator for aviation (FAA) and Airbus, were each criticized for not mandating ditching training in the flight simulator, tougher engine bird strike certification, proper pilot checklists. From a cabin crew point of view deficiencies existed in briefing of passengers and also lack of standardization of equipment in the US airways fleet (some aircraft had life rafts some did not) at the time FAA did not mandate use of life raft on non overwater flights. Apart from the Government leadership issues one of the positives from a leadership point of view was that, the captain turned on the mini jet engine so he could maintain control over the aircraft in the final minutes of the flight. However the negatives of the leadership where he failed to press the ditching button to close the valves so water would not flood the aircraft (but this is a limitation of the human mind in reaction to a rare and stressful situation). Another finding is the fact that, the industry was ill prepared to know how to ditch in water. From a communication and leadership point of view, the question asks What should be done differently as a result of this learning. In my research and opinion from this accident backed up with our theory from the course, they perform a magnificent job of handling the situation from a classic leadership and communication text book point of view and could in the future be a excellent case to study for future generations of leaders in the World. 3.0. CASE STUDY 2 3.1. Case summary: The second case study is of Awais Safder who led his team to complete a task in limited time by convincing the labor force to work over time during winter. This was very crucial for the reputation of the company he worked for since the client requested the project be built on a tighter time schedule. In order successfully meet the target; he placed leadership responsibilities on his sub-ordinates. They did not have to complete it for themselves but for the sake of company. Saving of time was of course saving of money. He did not just finish it on limited time but also saved on cost. Leaders are people who can create significant change in both followers and organisation which they are associated. (Iain Hay,2010) In a project, whoever is the leader must possess a number of characteristics to guarantee progress. To handle such pressure at an early stage of his career was mentally challenging. He was the sole structural site engineer on the building site. He did not only show inspirational skills in propelling the labor force to achieve this task, but also exhibited excellent leadership. 3.2. Leadership Manifestation The leadership manifested in this case was transformational leadership. The leadership traits Awais adopted in that case was focusing on being analytical, devoted, diligent, interactive and sincere, factors that a successful leader must adapt to if he anticipates progressive results. Sometimes however, depending upon the diversity of situations, there may be trade-on and trade-off characteristics in the need for each of the traits. He exhibited sound emotional stability in dealing with problems contemplatively towards the outcome of the project. Leadership skills perceived in solving the problems occurred during the execution of the task. He considered all ideas in addition to further improve his relationship with the followers and having sufficient skill to persuade followers even in case of disagreement. He made them realise that they had to complete this task for the sake of their companys reputation. He listened to their issues, noted their problems and promised them extra remune ration for their extended hours on the site. He also invited supervisors and foremen with whom he initially discussed the procedure of executing the activities and idea of extended hours at work for them. He then discussed the whole situation with Project Manager and explained to him how he was going to complete each activity and assured him of prompt progress on the project. He assured him that if these extra hours of construction were agreed upon, he would negotiate with the steel fixers to help boost moral on the construction site. 3.3. Comparing the learnt theories to the case study The under listed paragraphs gives a vivid illustration on how Awais leadership approaches were analyzed based on the theories learnt in class 3.3.1. Transformational Approach: Standing on the statement made by Hackman and Johnsons, The new leader is one who commits people to action, who converts followers into leaders, and who may convert leaders into agents of change (Hackman Johnson, 2009). His leadership skills was highly portrayed on how he encouraged his followers on the construction site to become leaders is a typical examples. A further example of this can be viewed from the following notes on transformational leadership. The transformational leadership characteristics from his case of study are as follows. 184.108.40.206. Creative: He exhibited creativity at different levels of the task. Since he was the sole engineer at the construction site, he had to come up with different alternatives to execute the given task at a specified time with the steel fixers especially during the winter when at night the temperature fell to -4Ã ° C. 220.127.116.11. Interactive: He took into account the fact that manpower plays a vital role in the progress of any task. In order to achieve the required goals from them, he was very concerned about their personal issues. He used to go on construction site, watched steel fixers, appreciated their hard work, stayed with them and made some jokes to make their working environment friendlier. Whenever I told them how the company had always taken care of them and provided them with many facilities in the past, they always gave a strong and positive response. To them, it was a give and take affair that is, once their basic needs are attended to, they on their part will do their best in achieving the companys goal. This is also a classic example of how McGregors theory Y is put into play. 18.104.22.168. Visionary: He was issued with the task of completing the project in 13 days. However, he was required by the client to complete it in seven days. He knew this requirement would stretch his time management skills but he employed excellent delegation skills to make sure the project would be completed on time and almost 30% below budget cost. An example of this is a quote from Hackman and Johnson that A vision is a concise statement or description of the direction in which an individual, group, or organisation is headed (Hackman Johnson, 2009). 22.214.171.124. Empowering: During this process he felt it was necessary to give his subordinates the feeling of being on equal footing as himself. He thought that if he treated his workers on the same level as himself he would get a great return from the worker, they will be more motivated and the company would get a great return from the workers. This was evident by the fact that the project was finished in seven days instead of the proposed 13 days. The comment by Hackman and Johnson enforces this great display of leadership, that is, Transformational Leaders know how to give power away and how to make others feel powerful (Hackman Johnson, 2009). 126.96.36.199. Passionate: He worked long hours for the completion of the task allocated to him and to excel his followers too. He believed that his display of immense love and passion towards his work was essential to serve as a motivational factor for his subordinates. This contributed a lot since it encouraged all the followers to put in a similar amount of passion or even more to achieve the set goals. He made funny jokes with his subordinates gave him the chance to get along with them. This in turn increased work production on site because he made his sub-ordinates felt valued. The statement below links him well with the passion component of transformational leadership. Transformational Leaders love their jobs have a great deal of affection for their fellow-workers. (Hackman Johnson, 2009) 3.4. Lessons learnt from the course The lesson learnt from the course further equipped him with better tools to manage a situation like this in a more comprehensive approach in the future. Looking at the course we can use many outstanding theories to better equip us for greater management skills in the future. A further examination of the strategies to his scenario on the construction site are done using Wallas four steps for creative problem solving 3.4.1 Preparation: In his scenario, he acknowledged the problem and tried to weight up the problems with the possible solutions. The best solution he came up with was able to satisfy both the management and employees. 3.4.2 Incubation: After reviewing the situation, his team sat down and deliberated on other alternative solutions to the problem at hand. 3.4.3 Illumination: After the two meeting with his followers, he made it a point to personally deliberate on the issue and the proposed solutions to see the possibly of coming up with a whole different approach based on his knowledge and expertise in that particular issue. 3.4.4 Verification: He would go back to the original people he had a meeting with and discuss again the problems and solutions of the construction site and then finalise with his team on the best solution they should opt for. 3.5. Improvements to Case Study 2 based on learnt theories From the study of this course, we realised that his leadership at the time was sufficient but he could personally improve on it now based on the theories hes learnt from the course. The productive engineer should possess abilities skillful enough to express, recognize problems and understand cultures and atmosphere. Leadership attributes can be further developed by more knowledge and experience. Based on the theories, characteristics of a good engineering leader must comprise of intuitiveness, inspiration, effective communication, individual prosperity and contemplation to function in multi cultural and multi disciplinary teamwork. By following these traits, we can portray our organisation as one with essential technical particulars and leadership dexterities. Even though the target of the project was met, they virtually worked under pressure which will results in the followers strength and capabilities being over stretched and in turn affected productivity. Working under pressure in that adverse weather conditions did not really portray good leadership concern and care for subordinates. Increasing the human resources so that work will be completed in due time with more hands would be a better option than to unnecessarily pressurise the workers with loads of remunerations. Casual workers can thus be hired if the companys resources were not enough to permanent employees. 4.0. CASE STUDY 3 4.1. Case Summary The third case is a task of sensitising all employees of a mine to acquire ISO 14001 EMS Certification. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System is the outcome of a successful assessment of a company by an independent third party to ensure that working operations are carried out in an environmentally friendly manner such that there is a minimum impact on the environment. The ISO 14001 certification for AngloGold Ashanti, Obuasi Mines Environmental Management System was carried out as evidence to stakeholders of the companys compliance with the national and international environmental management standards. In this regard, the management of the mine had an essential role to play in developing organisational awareness creation, sensitisation and education by explaining the concepts ISO 14001 to the entire staff and demonstrating their commitments to it before an internal audit by a independent external certification body takes place. The project was a collaborative effort by the entire staff of the mine, but the responsibility of training, awareness creation and sensitisation section of the project was duly handled over to Matilda to adequately manage all resources and logistics to ensure that all employees on the mine are satisfactorily sensitised on the concepts and procedures involved in the certification process. The attainment of the certification to a large extend depended on the understanding of the employees on the concepts of ISO 14001. It was a delicate task involving a whole complex situation considering the capacity of employees and size of the mine with a workforce of over seven thousand employees. It was a great input into her career and her leadership potentials. 4.2. Leadership Manifestation Leading the team on this project was a very bold step in her career as an environmental officer and the challenges faced toughened her for greater works ahead in her life. She manifested a good leadership skill by not ruling her team, but co-ordinating with them to embark on the project. She encouraged her subordinates to make concrete decisions and sorted their opinions on how the sensitisation program was to be run in their respective departments. She decided to train her immediate followers on how to properly organise their department. She believed in the fact that, training them will increase their competence level and make them more responsible. She agreed with the philosophy of John D. Rockefeller quoted in Hackman and Johnson, 2000 as Good leadership consists of showing average people how to do the work of superior people (Hackman Johnson, 2000). The training needs of the followers were based on their level of experience and responsibilities. All training materials, methods and means of evaluation took into account their abilities, literacy, nature of risk associated with their operations and their individual responsibilities. After having decided on the best methods of sensitisation with her followers, she deduced some objectives to get them started and to keep them in the right framework. These were to maintain ISO14001 EMSs Standard in the training Program, to develop better employee education and training on the importance of ISO 14001, Improve communication with stakeholders/interested parties and to verify the conformance of the training efforts to regulatory or organisational requirements A great Leadership skill was manifested in solving the problems faced during the execution of the projects. Her ability to adapt to immediate corrective actions in solving them and getting the task completed made her very competent. Her display of good emotional stability in addressing the issues and taking into consideration the different characters and levels of intelligence contributed immensely to the success of the project. Coming down to the social levels of the followers and making them comfortable despite their social standings was a factor that took all inferiority out of the followers and eliminated all barriers to her position as a the youngest female leader. The challenge of working out of office hours to duly complete the task within the set time before the internal audit added so much to her credibility as a leader since she was perceived as a leader who leads by example and was very passionate with her duties. 4.3 Comparing the learnt theories to case study 3 A critical analysis of the case study based on the theories leant reflects the leadership skills manifested in Matildas case as a combination of most of the leadership approaches. An illustration on how her approaches was analysed based on the theories are discussed below 4.3.1 Trait Approach 188.8.131.52. Interpersonal Factors She was not limited by her gender or age but maintained a good composure and displayed extreme confidence in leading followers who were much older than her with some having higher academic attainments and work experiences than she had. 184.108.40.206. Cognitive Factors Her approaches to handling the challenges and solving problems associated with the project displayed her level of intelligence in her field of study and career. She tactfully handled the issues with due consideration to the followers view points and not unnecessarily discriminating. This attribute was greatly admired by her followers. 220.127.116.11. Personality: Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) Preparation of the training materials with due considerations to the competence and intelligence levels of the followers by eliminating all inferiorities and superiorities was a great way of displaying emotional stability which was a key factor in the program. Extraversion (Sociability): Her socialising approaches with the followers in meeting at clubs or restaurants after office hours, discussing other family and personal life issues broke every tension and gave the followers the edge of contributing their entire quota without feeling intimidated. Openness to experience (Creativity): The different sensitising training materials and approaches such as the use of videos, seminars, gift vouchers, floats, debates and awards of certificates of competence etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ was a very creative approach which helped to adequately send the message across without necessarily bombarding them with endless boring literature. Agreeableness (Trusting): She trusted her followers as being competent enough to lead their respective departments and this was based on the fact that they were adequately trained in all the systems and procedures involved and equally up to the task. Conscientiousness (Organised): The outlined objective established by the leader to keep them in the right framework and to ensure their program followed a guided path displayed her skills as being a well organised leader. Project charters were also used to evaluate the progress of the program. 4.3.2. Situational Approach: The situational approach was duly adopted by Matilda considering the fact that contextual intelligence was very much implemented. The impact of past environmental practices were considered leading to the adaptation of current trends in making concrete commitments to the future trends. The situational approach also recognised and adapted two factors under the Fiedlers contingency model. That is the task structure and team relationship (Hackman Johnson, 2000). The task structure in her case was based on the fact that, all the sensitisation program was subjected to specific procedures, agreed upon outcomes and a comprehensive evaluation of the processes and outcomes. The interpersonal relationship among the team can be classified as a good one as there was harmony in the decision making process and the avoidance of all personal issues that had the potential of marring the established relationship. 4.3.3. Transformational Approach: The leaders interactive nature of communicating with the followers on every detail that needed to be done and on the progress is a proper demonstration of the transformational leadership approach. The act of empowering the followers by adequately training them to become highly competent and encouraging them to participate and be involve in the decision making was an approach that greatly paid off in the project. With due consideration of the workforce of over 7000 people to be sensitised, there was no way of accomplishing the goal if followers were not trained to take up the responsibilities of sensitising the workers and contractors in their respective departments Lessons learnt from the course This course clarifies the fact that every leaders competence and skills are greatly based on the attitude of the followers and the outcome of the specific task being handled. Irrespective of the fact that most people are of the opinions that great leaders are born, this case of leadership skill is a proper demonstration of the fact that leaders are made and not born. This is supported with the statement made by Vince Lombardi in Hackman and Johnson, (2000) that, Leaders are made, not born. They a
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Medicating Young Minds In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Medicating Young MindsÃ¢â¬ , which was published in Time magazine, dated November 3, 2003, it is stated that using stimulant medication on the youth is harmful. The article's author, Jeffrey Kluger, states that society must find alternative ways to treat young people for problems such as; ADD, ADHD, depression, anxiety, etc. Jeffrey Kluger's argument is not very persuasive for various reasons: their ill-logical beliefs, their sarcastic tones, their opinion and lack of fact based information, and their tendency to be biased in their writing. All of these reasons make it a poor argument over a very important subject. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Medicating Young MindsÃ¢â¬ author Jeffrey Kluger goes into detail about the problems of medicating children today. It is Klugers et al belief that it should not be happening; medicating the youth. His argument is logical to himself but, it may not be to everyone, especially people who need medication to survive. Kluger uses a sarcastic tone and is somewhat biased in his article. He believes that people today are just looking for the easy way out to feel better, when in reality they use medications to help them be successful in life. He states reasons for why he feels medications to aid ADD, ADHD, depression, anxiety and other mood disorders are bad, but does not give logical explanations to back it up. Kluger states side effects that he believes should help people determine that these medications are not worth taking. However, none of these side effects are worse than the effects some one may have with out the medicine. Kluger et al lacks evidence and does not have logic to their argument. His opinion is built into the article and less fact. He does no... ...sm, etc. The argument does not seem to be too believable for it does not show that any of the authors have any experience in the topic of medication and the effects on the youth .Also, the examples et al give are weak and they are not backed up with anything solid. The bias attitude these authors tend to demonstrate through the article does not help with believing what the authors have to say. Lastly, the word choice and attitudes throughout the article are used to try to make the reader fear or question medication on the youth. These words or statements are not followed with any good back up leaving them not as effective. It is obvious that the authors hold values that may differ from the general populations on this topic and they are not ashamed to show it. Having these attitudes takes away from the logic, believability, and credibility of their argument as a whole.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Kent State University Incident: The End of the Innocence After a long period of fighting a defensive war in Vietnam, on April 29, 1970, President Richard Nixon launched a full scale attack in Cambodia, which greatly accelerated AmericaÃ ¹s involvment in this conflict. The reaction from the American college student population was one that led into great controversy and heated debates. When Nixon announced his decision on the following day, many people were upset, and thousands of people protested. The end result of one particular protest was bloody, and a perfect example of what terrible shape our country was in during that period of time (Guard Fired in Self Defense). Thoughtless mistakes such as the ones made on that day will often have a snowball affect that lead into problems for all persons envolved. On May 3, 1970 students of Kent State University rallied to protest NixonÃ ¹s announcement. There was violent protesting all through the night. Windows were broken, cars were destroyed, and the ROTC building was burned to the ground. When the firemen arrived, their hoses were taken by students and used aganist them. At that point Governor James Rhodes called for the National Guard to come in and protect the campus(Four Deaths at Noon). The following day Kent State University was under the Ã ³protectionÃ ² of the Ohio National Guard. Around noon on that day, students fromed in protest. They were told to disperse, but refused. The first action of the National Guard was to release tear-gas grenades upon the masses of students (Guard Fired in Self Defense). These grenades were marginally suscessful, and only caused a temporary retreat. The students then responded by throwing concrerte, rocks, and everything else they could find. This was the first of a group of poor decisions that led to the bloody disaster of May 4, 1972 and all of the other problems associated with the disaster (Kent State Continued). From a distance of about sixty feet from the crowd of students, a member of the National Guard believed that he heard sniper fire. In response to these alleged shots, he opened fire on the students with his M1 .30-06 caliber rifle. He was immediately backed up by several of the men in his squad, all of whome were shooting the same rifle except for one man who shot a military issue Colt .45. When the smoke had cleared, ther had been about thirty-five shots fired, and four of
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Life Is a learning process for everyone. Nothing stays till the end of our breath except knowledge. From Aristotle quotes, All men by nature desire knowledge because there will always be something new to learn every day. During my childhood time, I think that I could be anything I fantasize when the teacher asked about my ambition. But now, that question becomes the topic that I feared the most and I would take some time to make up my mind and came up with a safer answer which sounded applicable. The fact was I did not have the answer.Growing up as an ordinary student, I did not make a specific goal in my life. I just a student that has fallen in love with science since in primary school when I had made my own telescope. It's Just too amazing like Albert Einstein quotes, The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all art and science. Starting from there, I keep my path in science field and had a thought to be a scientist. However, I realized th at certain things would not easily come In our way and we might not get everything we want in life.After completing my secondary school tit Is]IL Planners Malaysia (CPM) qualification as student science and got an average result made me accept whatever offer came. That is me. My name is Unregulated Syllable Bin Mood Doris. I am 22 years old and recently graduated in Bachelor In Science (Hon.) In Textile Technology at university Technology MAR. I am one of student at Faculty of Applied Science. Randomly, I think my faith is still with science. My admission begun in 2011 and finished in 2014 means that the total years of my study were three years only.It's Just like a fast as lightning. I also got a Dean's list once during my degree study. As time passed, life experienced gained and achievements become a significant measurement of life accomplishment. I never feel burdened with this course and can overcome every hassle efficiently. In fact, by having this principle In me, I decided to give a taste Into my life by further my study for Master level. In my opinion, there are no extraordinary people who do the great things. It's only ordinary people who are doing ordinary things in an extraordinary way.Things we dream of will not come true without any effort and courage. From my little three years of textile exposure, I try to learn and adapt myself with new things and for sure I found It Interesting. I am a person that not easily give up and keep on creating excitement in life, even though it's turn wrong. Life must go on. I will create a new cross road to success because there is no dead road for people that have a high self motivator. Furthermore, for me performing fail is an opportunity for me to perform towards the success. Took the challenge to meet other opportunities in front of me. Therefore, I am having plan to hold a M aster In Business Administration (MBA). With some important cognition and managerial skills, especially in business. I am aware with my in sufficiency since business will be an integral part of my Job, it is essential that I fill in these gaps. Moreover, during my degree study, there was certainly subject related to business field such as marketing, retailing and merchandising.Surprisingly, I managed to obtain a great grade in those subjects. Now, I can move ahead to become a one-level-higher than the average person. Given the confluence of my personal and professional interests, I also wider my goal to attend courses related to computer in order to deepen my expertise and broaden my perspectives. Last but not least, therefore, to hold MBA scroll is one of my ambitions that could come one of the factors that could boost my motivation to keep going on achieving my goals.With this state of achievement I can broaden my abilities and improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any work environment. For me, personal satisfaction plays a key role in career decision by enjoying the sense of productivity and usefuln ess I gain from the work, and I feel it is a valuable experience for my future employment soon. This is because I am a person that realize I do not know nothing but interested in acquiring new information, which help me to obtain something.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The point of BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s essays is not so much to make his readers aware of racial prejudice in the States as it is to attempt to look at that prejudice, analyze it, understand where it comes from, and decide how to deal with it. In this essay, James Baldwin explores the complexities of both race relationships and familial relationships. Concerning his relationship with his father, Baldwin admits toward the beginning of the essay: Ã¢â¬Å"We had got on badly, partly because we shared, in our different fashions, the vice of stubborn pride.Ã¢â¬ This admission sets the tone for the rest of the essay, an idea of both opposition and similarity in this relationship. Also, Baldwin begins the title essay in Notes of a Native Son with a statement of death and birth. He mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"my father died. On the same day, a few hours later, his last child was born.Ã¢â¬ (p,52) This theme of death and birth also works itself out on a larger scale, eventually encompassing the entire ess ay. At the end of the essay Baldwin begins with his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral. Then he goes into reminiscing the times when his father was alive, realizing that they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t talked much. Then back to the funeral, Ã¢â¬Å"The casket now was opened and the mourners were being led up the aisle to look for the last time on the deceased.Ã¢â¬ (p.65) Baldwin takes a last look at his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s face.Baldwin is able to see his father in a different light, one that includes both his negative and positive characteristics. In doing so, Baldwin is also able to see himself more clearly. By examining his relationship with his father, Baldwin experiences several revelations, which culminate in a type of symbolic death and spiritual rebirth by the end of the essay.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The pages of History are littered with stories and legends of societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ great leaders: Napoleon Bonaparte, a brilliant and charismatic military strategist; Mahatma Ghandi, the peaceful revolutionary; Pope John Paul II, the vibrant Roman pontiff that continues to inspire millions; Ronald Reagan, the Ã¢â¬Å"Great CommunicatorÃ¢â¬ ; and the list goes on and on. And these leaders are looked upon, revered, and modeled in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society as those having exemplary leadership skills, having the keys to motivating, influencing, inspiring, and moving the masses to accomplish great and mighty things. But there was only one perfect, righteous leader; one who led by example, and implemented the wisdom keys from the Word of God: Jesus Christ. And He gave to us His Word, the Bible, the perfect manuscript for life, including key leadership concepts that we can be apply today. Using the life of Christ as the primary example and combining His life with GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word, one finds perfect, holy, and successful leadership treasures that excel in relevance and effectiveness beyond historyÃ¢â¬â¢s secular leadership examples. This paper is my exploration into how the Word defines a great leader and those wisdom nuggets that we can use today through the concepts of small beginnings, vision, service, and time management. When Israel returned from captivity to rebuild the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Temple, the Lord said through the Old Testament Prophet Zechariah, Ã¢â¬Å"[Do not] despise the day of small [beginnings]Ã¢â¬ (New King James Version, Zechariah 4:10). Referencing this verse, Pastor Mac Hammond of Living Word Christian Center rhetorically asks the question, Ã¢â¬Å"If it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be instantly huge, why bother? (Ã¢â¬Å"Small BeginningsÃ¢â¬ ). The world is consumed with the concept of instant gratification, the desire to be the biggest and the best without enduring the struggle that comes with growth, but Jesus started his ministry small, with 120 passionate, committed followers. The LORD also started the Hebrew Nation with just one man, Abraham. And from that man, a great nation has grown and endured for thousands of years. And even before that, God created the first family, one man and one woman, to fill the earth and subdue it. Our God, the Christian God, is a God of small beginnings. I attend the mega-church Family Worship Center in Lakeland, FL. The churchÃ¢â¬â¢s pastor and charismatic shepherd is Reggie Scarborough. Like the greater church body, the nation of Israel, and the beginnings described in Genesis; Pastor Reggie did not despise Family Worship CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s day of small beginnings. In fact, I believe, he embraced it. Nearly 26 years ago, the church began with exactly 100 members and has flourished to a congregation of nearly 4,000. Great leaders do not despise or forsake the day of small beginnings. For those who suffer those small beginnings the Lord is faithful to yield much. In the financial world there are three mutually owned financial firms that separate themselves from the rest: New York Life, Massachusetts Mutual Life, and Northwestern Mutual Life. All three companies were founded in the mid-19th century with a strategy for small, slow, conservative growth. Today, the Ã¢â¬Å"Big Three MutualsÃ¢â¬ are Fortune 100 companies with credit ratings and assets that surpass most other rivals in the financial markets. These companies saw the value of small beginnings, and the payoff has been a good, strong name. For me, leadership key number one is Ã¢â¬Å"do not despise the day of small beginnings. Ã¢â¬ To the prophet Habakukk, the Lord said, Ã¢â¬Å"Write the vision and make it plainÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hab 2:2). This was the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s reply to HabakukkÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint of the wickedness befalling Judah. Habakukk was seeking justice from the Lord and an answer on JudahÃ¢â¬â¢s future. In similar measure, the Lord spoke through Proverbs to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Without a vision, the people parishÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Prov 29:18). A great leader must have a vision for the future. The text uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"mission statement [to] summarize Ã¢â¬ËwhyÃ¢â¬â¢ an organization existsÃ¢â¬ (Kiniki and Kreitner 459). In like manner, the Word of God uses Ã¢â¬Å"visionÃ¢â¬ to give the people a purpose, an answer to the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Why do we do what we do? Ã¢â¬ A vision or mission statement also allows those in the organization to glimpse the Ã¢â¬Å"big picture. Ã¢â¬ Pastor Mac Hammond encourages his readers to, Ã¢â¬Å"Find out where you fit in the grand scheme of things. Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Big PictureÃ¢â¬ ). It also allow for goal-setting. How will the organization accomplish the vision? Referring to the passage from Habakukk, Pastor Mac Hammond states, Ã¢â¬Å"Setting specific, measurable goals is a powerful exerciseÃ¢â¬ ¦ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the most important motivational tasks for winningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Exercise of Goal SettingÃ¢â¬ ). Just as Pastor Reggie started Family Worship Center with small beginnings, he also had a vision for the congregation. That vision is espoused in the mission statement of Family Worship Center which reads: Our mission is to create a worship environment through a union of the Word of God and the Spirit of God that will stimulate a progressive Pentecostal community. Ã¢â¬Å"Our MissionÃ¢â¬ ). Its vision allows its congregants to know why they are there and how they fit in. The vision also helps Pastor and his Board of Advisors create and manage goals for Family Worship CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. And from that growth through goals formed from the vision, Family Worship Center has grown to a mega-church that sows into ministries throughout the world. Likewise, the Big Three Mutuals all had separate, yet similar, visions. All of their stories are alike in that each of their founders laid out a vision or mission for long-term financial security and conservative growth. The following mission statement was released in 1911 from the Northwestern Mutual Life (NML) Board of Trustee, and reads as follows: The ambition of the Northwestern has been less to be large than to be safe; its aim is to rank first in benefits to policyowners rather than first in size. Valuing quality above quantity, it has preferred to secure its business under certain salutary restrictions and limitations rather than to write a much larger business at the possible sacrifice of those valuable points which have made the Northwestern pre-eminently the policyownerÃ¢â¬â¢s company. Shannon and Poley) This mission statement has allowed NML to grow in an efficient conservative manner for nearly 100 years, and its reputation and name is revered in the industry. Like Family Worship Center, NMLÃ¢â¬â¢s vision has giving its policyowners and staff the ability to see NMLÃ¢â¬â¢s big-picture, and the vision has been the guidebook NML uses when setting goals and future plans. A Vision does multiple things for any organization: It gives the organization purpose, it shows the people where they fit in with the big-picture, and it gives a clear path for goal-setting. For me, leadership key number two is Ã¢â¬Å"have a vision. Ã¢â¬ Another prominent leadership concept is servant-leadership. Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"servant-leadershipÃ¢â¬ was coined by Robert Greenleaf in 1970, the concept was espoused by Christ two millennia before (Ã¢â¬Å"What is Servant LeadershipÃ¢â¬ ). Jesus promoted the idea of servant-leadership when He said to His disciples, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦whoever wants to become great among you must be your servantÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (New International Version, Matt 20:26). His focus was putting others before oneself. I like the way John MacArthur describes the passage: In this rich text, the Lord was teaching the disciples that the style of greatness and leadership for believers is different [than for none believers]Ã¢â¬ ¦ [Christians] lead by being servants and giving themselves away for others, as Jesus did. (1430) Servant-leadership gives the leader influence, builds moral, and provides him or her understanding. Through JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ example, He did all those things. He had influence; He inspired the crowds; and His leadership style showed understanding. From a business point of view, there is an old saying, Ã¢â¬Å"He who serves best, profits most. Ã¢â¬ (Source unknown). And itÃ¢â¬â¢s true in any organization. Leaders in a church must serve the sheep, just as Pastor Reggie has done at Family Worship Center. Leaders in business must serve their clients, just as the Big Three Mutuals. For me, leadership key number three is Ã¢â¬Å"service. Ã¢â¬ The Apostle Paul said to the church at Ephesus, Ã¢â¬Å"Be very careful, then, how you liveÃ¢â¬ânot as unwise but as wise, making the most of every opportunityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Eph 5:15 Ã¢â¬â 16). In comparison, the New King James uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"redeeming the timesÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"making the most of every opportunity. Ã¢â¬ For the leader, what Paul may be inferring here is, Ã¢â¬Å"Use your time wisely. Ã¢â¬ In support of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s letter, John MacArthur opines: Ã¢â¬Å"We are to make the most of our time on this evil earth in fulfilling GodÃ¢â¬â¢s purposes, lining up every opportunity for useful worship and service (1812). In Scripture, we constantly see Jesus Ã¢â¬Å"redeeming the timeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"making the most of every opportunity. Ã¢â¬ He had priorities in place, taking care of the most pressing matters, first. Many of his miracle healings were interruptions in His schedule, but He often turned aside from His journey to touch the sick and heal the blind, making the most of the opportunity. He redeemed the time He had on the earth. For the Christian, Pastor Mac Hammond says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦one of the most crucial lessons any leader can learn is how to use time wisely. Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Time ManagementÃ¢â¬ ). For me, leadership key number four is Ã¢â¬Å"time managementÃ¢â¬ . Although this paper has addressed four keys to successful leadership, the wealth of leadership treasure in the Bible is without end. It does not matter the type of organization that applies these concepts. Whether a church like Family Worship Center, or one of the Big Three Mutuals; biblical leadership keys work. For me, if I only master these four, I believe I will be successful in both Christian ministry and the secular business world: small beginnings, the willingness to forgo instant gratification; vision, the idea that gives me purpose; service, putting others before myself; and, time management, making the most of every opportunity.