Sunday, January 26, 2020

Green Logistic Or Sustainable Logistics Management Environmental Sciences Essay

Green Logistic Or Sustainable Logistics Management Environmental Sciences Essay Logistics is a physical distribution, it is an area of high potential cost savings, improved customer satisfaction and competitive effectiveness. Following are coming under the logistic systems 1) Ware housing 2) Inventory control 3) Materials handling 4) Order processing 5) Transportation. 1. A Definition of the study: A widely accepted definition is the one provided by the council of Supply Chain Management professionals (CSMP. Previously Council of Logistic Management. CLM) in the USA is Logistic is the part of the supply chain process that plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers requirement. (P 195) (Business Administration for Students and Managers. Dr. Lawerence Mensah Akwetey 2011. Logistics is concerned with the efficient flow of raw materials of work in process inventory and of finished goods from supplier to customer. In addition to transportation logistics entails inventory control, warehousing, materials handling, order processing and related information activities involved in the flow of products. (Regan et al 2000) Green logistics is a traditional logistics seeks to organize forward distribution that is the transport, warehousing, Packaging and inventory management from the producer to consumer, environmental considerations opened up markets for recycling and disposal and led to the entire new subsector of reverse logistics. The reverse distribution involves the transport of waste and movement of used materials. While the terms reverse logistics is widely used. Other names have been applied such as reverse distribution reverse flow logistics and green logistics (Byne and Deep 1993). Freight transport provides the link in the supply chain between echelons that enable products to be available to the customer in the right place at the right time (Potter and Lalwani 2005) 1. B.Objective of the study: Review and analysis out how the logistic systems affect the environment. In the Green logistics, we have to make ensure the achievement of transport logistics compatible with the environment. The ideas of sustainable development originate from the 1987 Brundtland report (ACE 2004) also known as our common future. This report alerted the world to the urgency of making progress toward economic development that could be sustained without depleting natural resources or harming the environment. Example: Over recent years Irelands per capital have been house gas (GHG) emissions have risen to be one of the highest in Europe. This rise in emission is no small part attribute to the 165 % increase in transport emissions in the period 1990 to 2006.The focus of this study is on the development of environmentally conscious supply chains in Ireland through the studying the harmful impact that logistical activities have on the environment with this in mind the following section will define the Green or Sustainable supply chain and introduce the concept of sustainable logistics. Supply chain management was defined by Christopher (1998) is Supply chain management involves the management of upstream and downstream relationships with suppliers and customers to deliver superior customer value at less cost to the supply chain as a whole. Supply chains have been shown to high contributors to the carbon footprint of most goods (van Hoek 2001) with Eyefortransportv (2008) claiming that up to 75 % of a companys carbon footprint is derived from supply chain activities. The Green or Sustainable supply chain is an approach which seeks to minimise a product or services ecological footprint (Bearing point 2008). The concept covers all the phases of a products life cycle from the extraction of raw materials through the design, production and distribution phases to the use of the product by consumes and their eventual disposal of same. Sustainable logistics is a key element in the development of environmentally conscious /Green supply chain design. Green Design: Green design can be described as an approach which seeks to reduce a products environmental impact throughout its complete lifecycle through the design of the product. Green sourcing or Green Procurement: It is where environmental criteria are included in the decision making process when sourcing products or services. Green manufacturing: Has the goal of reducing the environmental impact of the manufacturing function in supply chains through the reduction of the environmental impact of the use of materials and energy. Green logistics: Has the aim of meeting cost targets and customer service levels with reduced pollution from the transport, warehousing, inventory management and distribution function in the supply chain. Sustainable logistics is a key element in the development of environmentally conscious/ green supply chain design. Reverse Logistics: It represents all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is vital component of green supply chains providing a means for products/materials to be returned from the user to the producer in order to be recycled, reused or reconditioned. Logistics and the Environment Freight transportation by road is the dominant mode of freight transport in many economies due mainly to the flexibility and speed that the movement of freight by road offers When compared to railway, inland waterway or Sea transport (Mason and Lalwani 2004).This is particularly true for Ireland as 90 % of freight traffic occurs in the road( Ryan et al 2003). In freight transport the burning of petrol and diesel fuels in internal combustion engines leads to the chemical by-product of Nitrous Oxide, Methane and most importantly Carbon Di Oxide. Transport in Ireland is a major contributing factor to Irelands overall emissions accounting for a 20.8 % share of total emissions in 2007, 97% of which is from road transport (EPA 2008) Aronsson (2006) highlighted major source of environmental problems have received during the last decade by transportation. Recommendation: As highlighted by Tenekcioglu (2004) certain mode of transportation such as rail and maritime transport are considered green modes because their effects are less detrimental to the environmental to the environment. These modes produce less pollution, less noise and account for less accident. GLOBAL WARMING The stern (2006) report on climate change outlines that it is now widely accepted that if no action is taken on reducing GHG emissions and in particular carbon Dioxide (co2) emissions that based on current trends in the next 50 years or so 2-3 Celsius increase in global temperature can be predicted causing disastrous effects in the areas of Food sources, water, Health, Land, Environment. For example Ireland National Climate change strategy 2007- 2012 report states that continued emissions of green house gases at or above rates would result climate system over this century than those observed to date. The department of transport Ireland (2009) estimate that over 30 % transport emissions in Ireland come from freight transport. If atmospheric concentration of green house gas had been stabilized at 2000 levels, warming and sea level rise would continue at least until the end of this century due to the time scales associated with climate process and feedback. (Department of the Environment heritage and Local government Ireland 2007) Effects: 1) A temperature increase of 0.2 Celsius per decade for the next two decades with a warming of 1.8 to 4 Celsius by 2100. 2) Global average sea level rise in the ranges 18- 38 cm for the low emissions scenario and 26-59 cm for the high emissions scenario. 3) It is very likely that hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent and likely that future tropical cyclones will become more intense. 4) Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to increasing acidification of the ocean. Standards, Tools Methodologies for sustainable supply chain management Sustainable supply chain implementation requires standards to allow measurement of environmental impact methodologies and support tools to allow adoption of environment practices. This provides an overview of standards, tools and methodologies for the implementation of sustainable supply chains. Environmental Management system EMS standards have been developed as tools to allow the management of organizations to better identify, manage and control their activities that can impact the environment.EMS standards were developed in the early 1990s in several countries. The standards was approved by the British Standards Institution (BSI) IN 1992 and became a model for the ISO standard 14401, which was elaborated in the years 1991-1996.The European Eco-Management and Audit scheme( EMAS) was adopted in 1993.(EEB 2003). ISO 14000 Specifies a set of measures to be incorporated into a companys management system aimed at dealing with environmental aspects in a systematic way including the following major elements. Definition of an environmental policy including performance objectives Assessment of environmental aspects Identification of legal obligations Establishing an Environmental management programme. Definition of procedures to achieve the objectives Monitoring of the systems and improvement The European EMAS scheme is based on the international standards but contains additional requirement Initial environmental review. Independent verification An accreditation system for verifiers Validated environmental statements Employee involvement Industrial carbon foot printing standards and Methodologies. A carbon footprint is The total set of green house gas emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual event, organisation, and product expressed as carbon Di Oxide (Carbon Trust 2007) The British standards Institute (BSI) developed the publicly available specification (PAS) 2050 as a method for measuring the embodied GHG emission from goods and services. Conclusion and Recommendations: Tackling waste in Freight transport. Lean supply chain management is a technique that analyses ways to eliminate wastes in the production process thus increasing efficiency. In supply chain management Mason and Lalwani (2006) identify some hidden wastes in transport and logistics management which eventually have to be paid for by supply chain customers. These wastes includes Slow vehicle turnaround times Low back haul levels Low fill rates Duplicated administration Poor fleet utilisation. If we avoid all those things we can maintain the sustainable logistics without damage the environment or with minimum damage of the environment.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Assessment for Software Essay

?The use of technology to assess student learning has proven useful which has expanded its use in all learining enviroments. Technology has improved education so vastly that some schools are fully online while others mix campus classes with the virtual setting. This has created a steady growth of innovative software being used to assist teachers and stydents within those settings. Some of the software have becoe essential to education. Applying them in consistent manner helps the student build their foundation for life in our technology driven society. The advent of countless wireless devices has elevated our knowledge base and software has elevated as well. Even though some technologies and softwares are exspensive or require added training, the pros outweigh the cons in terms of benefits. Technology in the classroom has showed its value on numerous levels and assesments is another good example. Since technology had proved useful here, many developers have created multiple programs which allow educators to efficiently apply and review traditional assesments. For example, some tests can be given on computers via the school and online within the comforts of home. The results can be stored and shared easily with parents and other adminstrators within the school district to ensure accuracy. This is good because modifications can be made easily pertaining to the content and other needs for revision. Using these softwares in traditional schools has been so successful that new online schools have come into existence. This type of distance learning leans primarily on software for all assessments. GCU and Walden university are just a few examples of entities that use software for assessments. In education we must have assessments to grasp a view of whats being understood and what needs to be reviewed. These assessments can be formative or summative. Summative assessments are ones given at any time such as pop quizzes or tests after certain content. Formal assessents are given over a time span with multiple activities being took into account. Its helps the teachers rewiew whats being taight to ensure mastery of the content. There is also self assessment and peer assessment which are fors of student assessment. Using assessments is a great tool to ensure students are equally learning whats needed for full understanding of content. A good eaple of an beneficial assessment are mid-term exams. Students get to review their strengths and defiencies and guide further endeavors in the right direction. Technology has changed this aspect as well. Tests can now be taken on computers which is easier to grade and overall more efficient. Results can also be stored digitally for ongoing review. Some applications in this area may require added technological knowledge of teachers but should be easily manuervered by average students of this digital age. Other major aspects that have hindered expanded use of software for assessments are the availability of necessary equipment and qualified instructors to facilitate them. Low income areas don’t have funds for upgrades and most teachers have a knowledge base that predates todays capabilities resulting in a need for extra training. This training can be time consuming and sometimes expensive. Our government is trying to counter these problems with grants for teachers and schools. Even though it can be agreed that software has given assessmnets a needed uplift, they are some situations that digital assessments may not be the most accurate. For example, subjects like advanced science and health require hands on eperiences which would in turn have some traditional assessments. For example, I primarily wanted to take education with emphasis on chemistry online but I was informed I needed to be able to go to a traditional lab because of the content matter and instruction needed to master such. Areas such as language and mathematics don’t have those issues. These challenges have created new curriculum consisting of online mixed with campus courses. Depending on the content, a teacher must be prepared to use new assessment software and traditional assessments. In conclusion, technology has created new means to evaluate everyone involved in our educational system. With the use of software, these assesments can be modified and reviewed easier than ever. Using these This usage has rewards not only in classrooms but in nature with less use of paper, pencils and other tangible products.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Project Network Design Essay

The best network design to ensure the security of Corporation Techs internal access while retaining public Web site availability consists of several layers of defense in order to protect the corporation’s data and provide accessibility to employees and the public. The private-public network edge is considered particularly vulnerable to intrusions, because the Internet is a publicly accessible network and falls under the management purview of multiple network operators. For these reasons, the Internet is considered an untrusted network. So are wireless LANs, which-without the proper security measures in place-can be hijacked from outside the corporation when radio signals penetrate interior walls and spill outdoors. The network infrastructure is the first line of defense between the Internet and public facing web servers. Firewalls provide the first line of defense in network security infrastructures. They accomplish this by comparing corporate policies about users’ netw ork access rights to the connection information surrounding each access attempt. User policies and connection information must match up, or the firewall does not grant access to network resources; this helps avert break-ins. Network firewalls keep communications between internal network segments in check so that internal employees cannot access network and data resources that corporate policy dictates are off-limits to them. By partitioning the corporate intranet with firewalls, departments within an organization are offered additional defenses against threats originating from other departments. In computer networks, a DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a computer host or small network inserted as a â€Å"neutral zone† between a company’s private network and the outside public network. It prevents outside users from getting direct access to a server that has company data. A DMZ is an optional and more secure approach to a firewall and effectively acts as a proxy server as well. Security is the  heart of internetworking. The world has moved from an Internet of implicit trust to an Internet of pervasive distrust. In network security, no packet can be trusted; all packets must earn that trust through a network device’s ability to inspect and enforce policy. Clear text (unencrypted data) services represent a great weakness in networks. Clear text services transmit all information or packets, including user names and passwords, in unencrypted format. Services such as file transfer protocol (FTP), email, telnet and basic HTTP authentication all transmit communications in clear text. A hacker with a sniffer could easily capture user names and passwords from the network without anyone’s knowledge and gain administrator access to the system. Clear text services should be avoided; instead secure services that encrypt communications, such as Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL), should be used. The use of routers and switches will allow for network segmentation and help defend against sniffing Corporation Tech may want to have their own web or email server that is accessible to Internet users without having to go to the expense and complexity of building a DMZ or other network for the sole purpose of hosting these services. At the same time they may want to host their own server instead of outsourcing to an ISP (Internet Service Provider) or hosting company. Corporation Tech can use NAT (Network Address Translation) to direct inbound traffic that matches pre-defined protocols to a specific server on the internal or private LAN. This would allow Corporation Tech to have a single fixed public IP address to the Internet and use private IP addresses for the web and email server on the LAN. Network Diagram and Vulnerabilities Network infrastructure using Class C network address The Main Servers using Virtual Machine software was configured with a static IP address of This server controls DHCP, DNS and Active Directory. The Web Server is located outside the network in the DMZ. Internal network is configured on separate VLAN’s to separate department traffic and manage data access. Cisco Internal firewall was installed and configured to manage the internal network on the LAN. The Cisco firewall 2 implemented to manage remote traffic entering the LAN. This provides layered  security to the network. Several ports have been identified as vulnerabilities in the Corporation Techs network that allowed information to be transferred via clear text and as such they have been closed. Additional ports that could be used for gaming, streaming and Peer to Peer have been blocked or closed to reduce unauthorized access to the network. All ports known to be used for malicious purposes have been closed as a matter of best practices. All standard ports that do not have specific applications requiring access have been closed. The ports listed below are standard ports that have been blocked to minimize unauthorized packet transfer of clear text: Port 21 – FTP Port 23 -Telnet Port 110 – POP3 Port 80 – Basic HTTP Hardening Practices Develop a baseline Close all unused Ports Redirect traffic to secure ports example HTTPS (443) or higher Configure Firewall to allow or deny secure traffic Install IDS and IPS Review monitor logs on the network and compare to baseline for any intrusions Policies Develop and Implement network Acceptable User policy (AUP) which must be signed before using the network Assign Permissions and Rights Password Policy must be in place on all devices and enforce End Users must be trained about the different threats faced on the network Back Up must be done weekly and notify users Maintain Bandwidth speed and monitor peak hours Network Security realignment done using Class C network address The Servers was configured on network address static and for simplicity. DHCP, DNS and Active Directory were install and configured on one of the server. The second server was use for the Application. Both PC’s were also configured on the same network address for easy management on the switch. The switch was configured with static IP address. Router network address was changed to  avoid conflicting addresses and easy management. Cisco Internal firewall 1 was installed and configured to manage the internal network on the LAN. The Cisco firewall 2 implemented to manage remote traffic entering the LAN. This provides layered security to the network. References Cisco. (n.d.). (Cicso) Retrieved 10 26, 2014, from Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Next-Generation Firewalls: HP Support document – HP Support Center. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2014, from HP Support document – HP Support Center. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2014, from Network Access Control. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 26, 2014, from Wikipedia: Pascucci, M. (2013, Au gust 06). Security Management at the Speed of Business. Retrieved October 25, 2014, from Vaughan-Nichols, S. (2013, January 30). How to fix the UPnP security holes | ZDNet. Retrieved from Wodrich, M. (2009, November 10). Vulnerability in Web Services on Devices (WSD) API – Security Research & Defense – Site Home – TechNet Blogs. Retrieved from

Thursday, January 2, 2020

What Is Organizational Communication - 1174 Words

ABSTRACT Matt Koshmann, professor at the University of Colorado in his video titled what is Organizational Communication? Explains the concept of communication in the context of an organization and summarizes the roadblocks and problems we have in communication as the technology around us gets sophisticated. The common conception is that the technology to facilitate communication is not fully developed. However, people are communicating regardless of how they connect and the basic barriers to communication such as power, politics, influence, culture and gender still exists. Koshman delves beyond the conventional approach to understanding the role of communication and exploring organizations through the lens of communication. The video explains communication beyond conventional wisdom and how it influences human interaction and how it gives rise to norms of conflict resolution and provide us with a deeper, more sophisticated understanding of Organizational communication—organizations as communication, based on a constitutive view of communication (Koschmann, 2012). ANALYSIS Koschmann introduces a sophisticated way of looking at organization from the communication perspective beyond the conventional approach. In the video, he explains that communication is dynamic and it takes the shape of the organization and it mostly depends on your place in the hierarchy and the influence of this with the other organizational members. 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